《bp世界能源统计年鉴》2020年.pdf

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Statistical Reviewof World Energy2020 | 69theditionDiscover more onlineAll the tables and charts found in the printed edition are available at plus a number of enulltrasnullincludingnullnull nullhe energy charting tool null view predetermined reports or chart specinullc data according to energy typenull regionnull country and yearnullnull nullistorical data from null96null for many sectionsnull Additional country and regional coverage for all consumption tablesnullnull Additional data for renullned oil production demandnull natural gasnull coalnull hydroelectricitynull nuclear energy and renewablesnullnull nullnullnullversions and nullowernulloint slide pacnulls of the chartsnullmaps and graphsnullplus an Enullcel wornullboonulland database at of the datanullDownload the bp World Energy appEnullplore the world of energy from your tablet or smartphonenull nullustominulle charts and per the calculationsnull Review the data online and ofnullinenull ownload the app for free from the Apple App Store and nulloogle play storenullFor 66 years, the BP Statistical Review of World Energy has provided high-quality objective and globally consistent data on world energy markets. The review is one of the most widely respected and authoritative publications in the field of energy economics, used for reference by the media, academia, world governments and energy companies. nullnew edition is published every nullune.Discover more onlinenullll the tables and charts found in the latest printed edition are available at plus a number of enulltras, includingnullnull The energy charting tool – view predetermined reports or chart specific data according to energy type, region, country and year.null nullistorical data from nullnull6nullfor many sections.null nulldditional data for refined oil production demand, natural gas, coal, hydroelectricity, nuclear energy and renewables.null nullnullF versions and nullowernulloint slide packs of the charts, maps and graphs, plus an nullnullcel workbook of the data.null nullegional and country factsheets.null nullideos and speeches.Energy Outlooknullatch the BP Energy Outlook 2017 video, containing our projections of long-term energy trends to nullnull. nullwnload the booklet and presentation materials at the conversationBPstatsDownload the BP World Energy appnullnullplore the world of energy from your tablet or smartphone. nullustominulle charts and per the calculations. nulleview the data online and ofnulline. nullownload the app for free from the nullpple nullpp nulltore and nulloogle play store.DisclaimerThe data series for proved oil and gas reserves in BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2017 does not necessarily meet the definitions, guidelines and practices used for determining proved reserves at company level, for instance, as published by the nullnullnullecurities and nullnullchange nullommission, nor does it necessarily represent nullnullnulls view of proved reserves by country. nullather, the data series has been compiled using a combination of primary official sources and third-party data.nullhe Statistical Review of World En rgy analyses data on world energy marnullets from the prior yearnull nullhe Review has been providing timelynullcomprehensive and obnullective data to the energy community since null9null2null1bp Statistical Review of World Energy 2020ContentsIntroduction2 Chief cutive officer’s introduction3 2019 at a glance4 The year in reviewPrimary energy8 Consumption 9 Consumption by fuel 11 Consumption per capitaCO2Carbon1 3 Carbon dioxide emissionsOil14 Reserves1 6 nullroduction 20 Consumption2 6 nullrices2 8 Refining3 0 Trade movementsNatural gas3 2 Reserves3 4 nullroduction3 6 Consumption3 9 nullrices4 0 Trade movementsCoal4 4 Reserves 46 nullroduction 47 Consumption 49 nullrices and trade movementsNuclear energy5 0 ConsumptionHydroelectricity51 ConsumptionRenewable energy5 3 Renewables consumption 55 nulleneration by source5 6 nulliofuels production 57 nulliofuels consumption Electricity5 9 nulleneration 61 nulleneration by fuelKey minerals6 2 nullroduction 63 Reserves 63 nullricesAppendices6 4 nullpproximate conversion factors6 4 nullthodology 6 5 nullefinitions 65 nullore inationologyThis year we have made the following two ological changesnullfirstnullenergy units have been changed from million tonnes of oil enulluivalent to exanulloulesnullnullecondnullthe for estimating primary energy consumption of nonnullfossil sources of electricitynullhas been revisednullThis is still based on an nullnullenulluivalence’ nullinullenullon the amount of fuel that would be renulluired by a standard thermal power station to generate the reported electricity outputnullnullowever the thermal efficiency assumed for that standard power plant is no longer fixednullThe efficiency assumption rises each year to better renullect real world improvements in the average power station thermal efficiencynullnullor more details see the appendixnullor null2 bp Statistical Review of World Energy 2020Chief cutive officer’s introductionThat compares with just 10 provided by renewable energy. nullenewables will need to grow even more strongly over the next three decades to decarboninulle the power sector.nullore worrying is the trend for carbon emissions. The slowing in the growth of carbon emissions to 0.null in null01nullmay suggest some grounds for optimism. nullut this deceleration needs to be seen in the context of the big increase in carbon emissions in null01nullof null.1. The hope was that as the onenulloff factors boosting carbon emissions in null01nullunwoundnullcarbon emissions would fall significantly. That fall did not happen. The average annual growth in carbon emissions over null01nulland null01nullwas greater than its 10nullyear average. nulls the world emerges from the Cnullnullnullnullnull1null crisis it needs to manulle decisive changes to move to a more sustainable path.The disruption to our everyday lives caused by the locnulldowns has provided a glimpse of a cleanernulllower carbon worldnullair nulluality in many of the world’s most polluted cities has improvednullsnullies have become clearer. The nullnullnull nullnullnternational nullnergy nullgencynull estimate that global Cnullnullemissions may fall by as much as null.null gigatonnes this year. That has come at considerable cost and as economies restart and our lives return to normal there is a risnull that these gains will be lost. nullut to get to net nullero by null0null0null the world renulluires similarnullsinulled reductions in carbon emissions every other year for the next nullnullyears. This can be achieved only by a radical shift in all our behaviours. nully using resources and energy more efficiently. nullnd by implementing the full range of nullero and low carbon energies and technologies at our disposal null including renewable energiesnull electrificationnull hydrogennull CCnullnull nullcarbon capture use and storagenullnullbioenergy and many more. These technologies exist today null the challenge is to use them at pace and scale.nullt bpnull we are committed to playing our part. nulln nullebruarynull we adopted a new purpose null to reimagine energy for people and our planet. nullnd we announced a new ambitionnull to be a net nullero company by null0null0 or sooner and to help the world get to net nullero. The experience of Cnullnullnullnullnull1null has only reinforced our commitment to this purpose and ambitionnull by highlighting both the fragility of our planet and the opportunities it provides to truly build bacnull better. nulls bp along with the rest of the world navigate the energy transitionnullwe will need timelynull objective and comprehensive data on the global energy system. That is the role that the nulltatistical nulleview has been playing for the past nullnull years and will continue to play in the future. null hope this year’s nulltatistical nulleview is useful to everyone else seenulling ways to get to net nullero and build bacnull better. nullnd null would linulle to thannull the very many people who help our economics team in compiling itnull including the governments and statistical agencies around the world who have contributed their official data again this year. The nulltatistical nulleview would not be possible without your generous conulloperation and transparency. Thannull you.Bernard LooneyChief cutive officernullune nullnullThe Cnullnullnullnullnull1null pandemic may well turn out to be the most tragic and disruptive event that many of us will ever live through. nulls nullwrite this nullin the middle of nullune nullover null00 thousand people globally have lost their lives to the infection. nullillions more might have done so without the widespread locnulldown of economies across the worldnullwhich came at huge economic and social cost.This combined health and economic shocnull is bound to reshape the global economicnull political and social environment in which we all live and wornull. nullt has the potential to accelerate emerging trends and create opportunities to shift the world onto a more sustainable path. nullut it also risnulls slowing progress if the shortnulltermnull domestic issues raised by Cnullnullnullnullnull1null are prioritinulled over longnulltermnullglobal challengesnullsuch as climate change. nullt feels linulle the world is at a pivotal momentnullit needs to address these shortnullterm concerns but in a way that builds bacnull better.The technologies renulluired to reach net nullero exist today nullthe challenge is to use them at pace and scalenulland nullremain optimistic that we can manulle this happen.nullnulln that contextnullthis year’s edition of bp’s nulltatistical nulleview of nullorld nullnergy provides a timely reminder of global energy trends prior to the crisis. nullome aspects are encouraging null particularly the continuing strong growth of renewable energy. nulled by wind and solar powernullrenewable energy increased by a record amountnullaccounting for over null0 of the growth in primary energy in null01null. nullt the same timenull coal consumption fell for the fourth time in the past six yearsnull with its share in the global energy mix falling to its lowest level for 1null years.nullut other aspects of the energy system continued to give cause for concern. nullespite last year’s declinenull coal was still the single largest source of power generationnullaccounting for over nullnull of global power. “3bp Statistical Review of World Energy 20202019 at a glanceEnergy developmentsnull nullrimary energy consumption growth slowed to 1nullnullnull last yearnull less than half the rate of growth in 201nullnull2nullnullnullnullnullnull The increase in energy consumption was driven by renewables and natural gasnullwhich together contributed three nulluarters of the expansionnull nullll fuels grew at a slower rate than their 10nullyear averagesnull apart from nuclearnullnull nully countrynullChina was by far the biggest driver of energynull accounting for more than three nulluarters of net global growthnull nullndia and nullndonesia were the next largest contributors to growthnull while the nullnull and nullermany posted the largest declinesnullCarbon emissionsnull Carbon emissions from energy use grew by 0nullnullnullnull less than half 10nullyear average growth of 1null1nullper yearnullpartially reversing some of the unusually strong increase in 201nullnull2null1nullnullnullOilnull nullil consumption grew by a below average 0null9 million barrels per day nullbnulldnullnullor 0null9nullnull emand for all linulluid fuels nullincluding biofuelsnull rose by 1null1 million bnulld and topped 100 million bnulld for the first timenull null nullil consumption growth was led by China nullnullnull0null000 bnulldnull and other emerging economiesnullwhile demand fell in the nullnullCnull nullnull290null000 bnulldnullnullnull nulllobal oil production fell by null0null000 bnulld as strong growth in nullnull output null1nullnullmillion bnulldnullwas more than offset by a decline in nullnullnullC production nullnull2 million bnulldnullnull with sharp declines in nullran nullnull1nullnull million bnulldnull nullenenulluela nullnullnullnull0null000 bnulldnull and nullaudi nullrabia nullnullnullnull0null000 bnulldnullnullnull Refinery utilinullation fell sharply by 1null2 percentage points as capacity rose by 1nullnull million bnulld and throughput remained relatively unchangednullNatural gasnull nullatural gas consumption increased by nullnull billion cubic metres nullbcmnullnull or 2nullnull well below the exceptional growth seen in 201null nullnullnullnullnullnullnull everthelessnullthe share of gas in primary energy rose to a record high of 2nullnull2nullnullnull nullncreases in gas demand were driven by the nullnull null2null bcmnull and China null2null bcmnullnull while Russia and nullapan saw the largest declines null10 and null bcm respectivelynullnullnull nullas production grew by 1null2 bcm nullnullnullnullnullnullnull with the nullnull accounting for almost twonullthirds of this increase nullnullnullbcmnullnull ustralia null2nullbcmnull and China null1null bcmnull were also nulley contributors to growthnull null nullnternullregional gas trade expanded at a rate of nullnull9nullnullmore than double its 10nullyear averagenull driven by a record increase in linulluefied natural gas nullnullnullnullnullof nullnullbcm null12nullnullnullnullnullnull nullnullnull supply growth was led by the nullnull null19 bcmnull and Russia null1null bcmnullnull with most incremental supplies heading to nulluropenull nulluropean nullnullnull imports nullnullnull9 bcmnull rose by more than twonullthirdsnullCoalnull Coal consumption declined by 0nullnullnull and its share in primary energy fell to its lowest level in 1null years null2nullnullnullnull null nullncreases in coal consumption were driven by the emerging economiesnull particularly China null1nullnull nullnullnull and nullndonesia null0nullnull nullnullnullnull nullowevernull this was outweighed by a sharp fall in nullnullCnull demand which fell to its lowest level in our data series nullwhich starts in 19nullnullnullnullnull nulllobal coal production rose by 1nullnullnullnull with China and nullndonesia providing the only significant increases nullnullnull2 nullnulland 1nullnull null respectivelynullnull The largest declines came from the nullnull nullnull1null1 nullnullnull and nullermany nullnull0nullnull nullnullnullnullRenewables, hydro and nuclearnull Renewable energy nullincluding biofuelsnullposted a record increase in consumption in energy terms nullnullnull2 nullnullnullnull This was also the largest increment for any source of energy in 2019null null nullind provided the largest contribution to renewables growt
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